The philosophy behind the design of the stimulator is to reflect the journey of a person undergoing joint replacement surgery. As such a number of features need to be built into such a stimulator to address patient and clinician requirements at each stage of the process, from immediately after surgery through to return to normal function. These are; ‘Set Up’, ‘Blood Flow’, ‘Pain’, ‘Muscle conditioning’, ‘Endurance’ and ‘Power’, with the stimulator featuring the same easy to use 10 pre-programmed modes as the original Microstim, but with waveforms adapted specifically to the requirements of orthopaedic practice.
A selection of relevant papers are referenced below.
Avramidis K, Strike PW, Taylor PN, Swain ID. Effectiveness of electrical stimulation of the vastus medialis muscle in the rehabilitation of patients after total knee arthroplasty. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84: 1850-1853, 2003.
Burgess L, Immins T, Swain I, Wainwright T. Effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for reducing oedema: A systematic review Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 26 Feb 2019 (Journal article)
Louise C. Burgess, Ian D Swain, Paul Taylor, Thomas W. Wainwright Strengthening Quadriceps Muscles with Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Following Total Hip Replacement: a Review Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports First Online: 09 May 2019 Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation (B Schneider, Section Editor)
Technical spec table
|Set-up||0||300us 40Hz continuous||Useful for finding the correct electrode positions and testing response.|
|Blood Flow 1||1||300us 1Hz continuous||This gives a single impulse to cause a twitch of the foot|
|Blood Flow 2||2||300us pulse width, 40 Hz, 0.5 sec burst then rest for 2 seconds and then repeat. Continuous||This causes a more sustained contraction and movement of the foot to replicate squeezing the calf.|
|Pain 1||3||100Hz, 200us pulses continuous||General pain relief Works like massage/rubbing Gate theory|
|Pain 2||4||5 Hz 200us pulses continuous||Muscle/ chronic pain. Works like acupuncture Endorphin release|
|General Muscle Conditioning 1||5||40Hz 5 sec on 10 sec off, 0.5 sec ramps 300us pulses simultaneous||Both come on and go off together 0.5 sec ramp up, 5 secs at set level. 0.5 sec ramp down. Off for 10 secs.|
|General Muscle Conditioning 2||6||40Hz 5 sec on 10 sec off, 0.5 sec ramps 300us pulses alternate||Channel 1 comes on 0.5s ramp stays on for 5 secs at set level. Ramps down in 0.5 sec. After 2 secs Channel 2 comes on 0.5 sec ramp, stays on at set level for 5 secs, ramps down 0.5 secs. Two secs later Channel 1 comes back on.|
|Endurance 1||7||20 Hz 300s pulses 10 secs on, 0.5 sec ramps. simultaneous||Both come on and go off together 1s ramp up, 10 secs at set level. 1sec ramp down. Off for 3sec|
|Endurance 2||8||20 Hz 300s pulses 10 secs on, 0.5 sec ramps. alternate||Channel 1 comes on 1s ramp stays on for 10 secs at set level. Ramps down in 1 sec. Channel 2 comes on 1 sec ramp, stays on at set level for 10 secs, ramps down 1 secs. Channel 1 comes back on.|
|Power/Strength||9||60Hz 300us 200ms ramps, 3.5s on 4.5 sec off simultaneous||To be used at high intensity 3/4 times a week to induce muscle fatigue|